Tuesday, November 13, 2018

Empirical Formula | How to Determine Empirical Formula

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Definition:

A formula which indicates the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of different elements present in a compound is called an empirical formula.
How to Determine Empirical Formula:

1:  First, calculate the percentage of each element present in a compound.
2:  Divide the percentage of each element by its atomic mass to get the number of moles of each element.
3:  Divide number of moles of each element by least value to get simple whole number ratio of atoms.
4:  If atomic ratios are in fractions, multiply these by a suitable number to get simple whole number ratio.
5:  Write atomic ratios of elements below their symbols to get the empirical formula.
To understand let's take an example

Example:

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contains 40.92 % carbon, 4.58% hydrogen and 54.5 % of oxygen by mass. Now we calculate or determine the empirical formula from the above data.

                     mass of C = 40.92%
                     mass of H = 4.58%
                     mass of O = 54.5%

Step 1:

Dividing the percentages of elements by their atomic masses to get the moles of each element.

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Ions | Types of Ions | How Ions Formed | Cations, Anions

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Definition:

                A molecule, atom or species having a positive or negative charge is called an ion.
Types of Ions.
                     Ions are two types
a) Positive Ions or Cations b) Negative Ions or Anions

a) Positive Ion or Cation:

                                         A species which has a positive charge is called positive ion Cation. When atoms lose one or more electrons, positive ions are formed. A sufficient amount of energy is supplied to a neutral atom, then the atom loses an electron to form a positive ion. For this reason, the formation of a positive ion is an endothermic process.
        A     + Energy ---------------------> A     +    1e  =  +ve
Cations may have +1, +2, +3, +4 charges. It depends upon the number of electrons lost. Great energy is required to produce a greater charge. Positive ions are attracted towards the cathode, so they called cations. Cations are smaller in size than their parents' atoms due to the decrease in the electronic cloud. The most common and simple cation are metal ions.


b) Negative Ion or Anion

                                            A molecule, atom which has a negative charge is called negative ion or anion.
When one or more electrons are added to an isolated neutral atom, anions are formed. Energy is released when an electron is added to a neutral isolated atom to form a uni-negative ion. Hence it is an exothermic process. 
       B    +    1e   ---------------->  B     +   energy
Anion may have -1, -2, -3, -4 charge. It depends upon the number of electrons added. Negative ions are attracted towards the anode,  so they are called anions. Anions are larger than their parent atoms due to the increase in an electronic cloud.

Monday, November 12, 2018

Molecule | Types of Molecules

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Molecule: 
              The smallest particle of an element or compound which can exist independently is called molecule.
              It is made up of two or more atoms of similar or different elements.
Atomicity:
                 The number of atoms present in a molecule is called its atomicity.
Types of molecules 
Monoatomic Molecules:
                                     A molecule having only one atom is called monoatomic molecule.
Diatomic Molecules:
                                 A molecule having two atoms, similar or different is called diatomic molecule.
Homonuclear diatomic Molecules:
                                                    A molecule having two similar atoms is called homonuclear diatomic molecule.
Heteronuclear diatomic Molecule:
                                                    A molecule having the different elements is called heteronuclear diatomic molecule.  
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Saturday, November 10, 2018

Suna Log Usay Aankh by Faraz | Auto Biography of Ahmed Faraz

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Ahmed Faraz was a well-known poet. The real name of his was Syed Ahmed Shah. His father name was Masood Kausar. He studied at Edward College. He received Masters degrees in Urdu and Persian from Peshawar University. He born in Kohat. Date of birth his is 12 January 1931. He died on 25 August 2008 in Islamabad. He was famous for modern poetry.
The poem SUNA HE LOOG USAY AANKH BHR K in his book Khwab-i-Gul Preshan

Further Study about Faraz Click on ithttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_Faraz



Empirical Formula | How to Determine Empirical Formula

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